Welding Safety in Aluminium Fabrication


Deepak Adakmol
Welding & Metallurgy | L&T-Defence IC |
SSC-Talegaon, Pune


Considering excellent strength to weight ratio, machinability and adequate corrosion resistance provided by aluminium alloy, it became popular in industry as a good substitute of steel. Due to extensive usage of various grades of aluminium, fabrication and development demand also increased, but it also carries some challenges related to safety during its welding. Colour of aluminium doesn’t change even when it is heated up to its melting point, which makes it difficult to predict about temperature difference of various zones near weld. Any unintentional touch at those imperceptible heated area of work piece can cause serious burns. Apart from that welding fumes and UV radiation produced during welding of aluminium is more severe and hazardous. Electric shock and noise related health issue can also cause short as well as long term affect to a welder/welding operator’s health. An awareness of the welding safety is required along with good engineering practices. This paper consists of Major challenges and health issues, which may arise during aluminium welding and measure to reduce its hazardous effect.

Keywords: Aluminium welding, welding safety, welding awareness, health hazards

1. Introduction

According to World Health Organization (WHO), there are about 2.5 crore cases of work- related injuries annually reported, while according to data published in Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine in 2014, More than 3.5 lac workers lose their lives every year due to unexpected vocational injuries globally. As far as manufacturing industry is concern, its largely connected to forming and joining process, which carries certain challenges regarding health as well as safety. [18]

As of 2018, there are over 418,659 welders were employed in the United States and their data are well maintained by Zippaa.com (An online job provider).[20] But due to more disorganised welding units in India, very less data is available on welders. Those units are performing welding work on vast variety of metals without concerning more about safety and health of welders. So, it’s important to identify different types of health problems that may arise due to lack of awareness regarding particular metal (ferrous or non-ferrous) and related welding processes. [19]

The demand for non-ferrous metals is expediently growing in high technology areas. Among these metals, aluminium alloys are more frequently fabricated than any other nonferrous alloys. Aluminium (Al) and its alloys is largely used in chemical, Automotive, Shipbuilding, Aerospace and defence industry because of its excellent corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, adequate ductility and fair fabrication ability. Due to extensive usage of various grades of aluminium, fabrication and development demands also increased. But it also carries some challenges related to welding safety particularly for aluminium welding.

burns and noise if proper guidelines and safety rules is not followed with good engineering practices as shown in fig. 1. [14] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) outlined specific safety related requirements for welding, cutting, and brazing in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart Q, but no standard or guidelines is particularly made for aluminium welding. So in present paper we are more focused on gathered information about some health and safety related issue caused by aluminium welding, which may help to the employer to take awareness of hazardous effect of aluminium welding.


2. Major Challenges during welding of aluminium

2.1. Aluminium Welding fumes

Welding fumes are intricate mixture of metallic oxides, silicates and fluorides. Fumes are generally created when a material is heated above its boiling point especially during welding and its vapours condense into very fine particles. [13]

During welding of aluminium, aluminium oxide is formed from the filler material as well as from the base material. Aluminium powder and fumes are flammable solid and consist dangerous fire hazard. 30% more fumes are generated by welding with DCEP compared to DCEN or AC polarity, so more fumes usually generated during GMAW welding. [12] Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) on aluminium and its alloys produces much lower fume emission, approximately 10 times lesser in comparison of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). In Al-Mg alloy welding, fume exposures of 10-12 times of Occupational Exposure Standard (OES) limit are expected during arcing time. [8] When helium is used as shielding gas, at that time higher welding voltages are essential and fume emissions will be significantly higher. These may be up going up to 20 times to the welding fumes OES during arcing time. [8]

All particles suspended in the air during welding, that can be breathed via the respiratory tract are part of the inhalable dust fraction which are also known as E-dust. [7] The smaller particles of this E fraction dust can be deposited into the alveoli, so those smaller particles are referred as alveolar dust fraction or A dust as shown in fig. 2. Due to smaller size of the welding fumes particles (<0.001 mm), they are classified as A-dust and cannot be easily removed by the self- cleaning system of the lungs. Even spherical oxide particles, can be from a minimum of 10 to 50 or up to 400 nanometres in diameter depending on the welding method being used, making it more inhalable. [1,7] During welding of aluminium, excessive breathing in these particles in the form of aluminium oxide can lead to respiratory and lung diseases. [7]


A) Effect on health due to aluminium welding fumes

The degree of risk is dependent on the composition of the fumes, concentration of the fumes and duration of the exposure. The fume composition is dependent upon the material, process and consumables being used. [5] But the actual damage that may occurs has less to do with the duration of exposure, and more with the intensity. [1]

Long term overexposure or inhalation of high levels of fumes may result in harmful effects, such that it can act as an initiator of a strain on the respiratory tracts and even to the lungs if the particles reach and deposited there. It can also lead to generate respiratory diseases such as respiratory irritation, nausea, bronchitis, asthma, siderosis or even lung damage. The dust accumulation can even bring about irreversible aluminosis, also known as aluminium lung.[1] Overexposure to Aluminium dust & fumes can reduce lung function and may be associated with neurological effects, even it can affect central nervous system and organs such as pancreas and liver.[4,5] Short term inhalation of these fumes and gases may lead to metal fume fever, dizziness and irritation of the skin, nose, throat and eyes.[4,9] This symptom may be delayed for several hours after exposure and usually last for a day or two.[6]

Prolonged inhalation above safe levels of chromium compound during aluminium welding may cause cancer. Manganese and its compounds that may generate during aluminium welding may cause damage or affect the brain and central nervous systems above safe exposure limits. [5] American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommended air bone exposure limit is 10mg/m3 for total dust and 5 mg/m3 for pyro powders averaged for over an 8-hour work shift. [5]

B) Risk associated with different compound and gases of aluminium welding fumes

Composition of welding fumes depends upon many factors such as base material, welding process & procedures. Other conditions that can influence the fumes composition are substances found on base metal surface, volume of welding environment, quality and quantity of ventilation in welding area. [5] Various chemical element that may be part of welding fumes are having specified exposure limit as shown in table 1 for different standard.

Welding consumable of series ER4XXX and ER5XXX contains Si, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Cr, Zn and very small amount of Be. Those elements will decompose and produce welding fumes and gases that may lead to serious health issue as given below. [4,5]

  1. Overexposure to the magnesium oxide fumes, zinc oxide fumes and copper fumes can cause respiratory tract irritation, shortness of            breath and malaise (metal fume fever). Fever, chills nausea, vomiting, and muscular pains can be Temporary symptoms for overexposure of the same. [5]
  2. Chronic exposure to inert dusts of silicon can cause increased airway resistance and contributes to chronic bronchitis. Intratracheal administration of silicon may produce significant pulmonary lesions. [5]
  3. Hexavalent chromium compounds can be generated during welding operations with aluminium alloys containing chromium. Hexavalent Chromium (Chrome VI) can cause asthma, kidney damage, primary irritant dermatitis, sensitization dermatitis, skin ulceration, and pulmonary deem (Fluid in the lungs). Chronic inhalation or overexposure has been associated with lung, nasal, and gastrointestinal cancer. Hexavalent chromium is listed as carcinogenic to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Group 1, which includes the agent those are carcinogenic to humans. A significant amount of the chromium in the fumes may contained hexavalent chromium, which has a very low allowable exposure limit of 0.005 mg/m3 (5μg/m3 ).[5]
  4. Overexposure to the copper dust/mists/fumes can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. Chronic overexposure may result in blood disorders (anaemia) and skin-hair discolorations. [5]
  5. Beryllium exposure in fumes can cause irritant dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and skin granulomas. Inhalation of excessive levels of beryllium can result in acute pneumonitis (inflammation of the lung tissues). Beryllium can cause lung sensitization in susceptible individuals. Chronic inhalation of dust and fumes by those sensitized individuals can result in a serious, progressive disease called Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). This disease is often misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis. It is an allergic condition, in which the lung tissues become inflamed. This inflammation, sometimes accompanied with fibrosis (Lung scarring) and also restricts the uptake of oxygen into the blood stream. Over time CBD can be fatal. Inhalation of Beryllium has produced lung tumours in animals also. Beryllium is listed on the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and it is known to be carcinogenic to humans by IARC in group 1. [5]

Number of gases known as Asphyxiants, if present in high concentrations, it displaces the oxygen that is necessary to support the life. General asphyxiant gases that could be found during welding and cutting operations are acetylene, propane, methane, hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. [12]

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbons which are part of the residual cleaning and degreasing solvents, may produce hazardous gases when it exposed to the welding arc. decomposition products may include phosgene, phosphine, hydrogen chloride and chloroacetic acids. If other residual organics are present, decomposition may produce acrolein, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and acetaldehyde. Symptoms of exposure to most of these gases include eye and respiratory irritation, dizziness and headache. [12]
  2. Nitrogen oxides and nitric oxides may also form in the arc due to ultraviolet radiation.
    Nitrogen dioxide is irritating to the eyes, nose and respiratory tract even with low
    concentrations. Higher concentrations may result in pulmonary edema and other serious
    lung effects. [12]

Ozone gas may also produce during welding, which will be discussed in detail in subsection2.2.

C) Preventive Measures

There are two ways to minimize the exposure of fumes as following.

  1. Engineering controls: This method involves direct changing the work process/materials in some way to reduce or remove hazardous exposure. Second option can be Isolation of the fume source or installing additional ventilation to capture fumes near its source. [16]
  2. Work practice Controls: The solution depends on adjusting the way of work performing, in order to minimize the exposure. [16] In example welders would be trained to position exhaust intakes next to welds, to suck up fumes and keep exposure to a minimum level. welders should be trained to do welding in the position having less direct contact of fumes, in example in 3G or 4G. Welders should ensure through cleaning of any coating that could potentially create toxic exposure of isocyanates, such as solvent residue and paint. [11]

Compliance with the national regulations regarding the exposure to welding fumes of welders and related personnel shall be verified. [5] Advice on control measures mainly directed at particulate fume level control can be found in OSHA 1910.252 & GN EH 55. [8]

PPE and ventilation requirement to avoid exceeding of the national exposure limit value during welding of aluminium with 8 hour of duty cycle are as given in Table 2. [5]

A regulation addressing these exposures has been adopted by Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Oregon OSHA) with titled: OAR 437 Division 2 Subdivision Q: Welding, Cutting, and Brazing. [12] welding space should have volume of 284 m3 of volume and ceiling height at least of 16 feet, otherwise it needs mechanical ventilation to avoid exposure. [17]

Where it seems that either the long or short-term OESs for fumes will be exceeded, there will be sufficient needs to install local exhaust ventilation (LEV), or to use respiratory protective equipment (RPE) in the form of Class P2 (metal fume) respirator. [8,9]

Large production of fumes & ozone occurs close to the arc, which can be extract by LEV at that position to reduce the exposure below the OESs. Adequate general ventilation can help to ensure that fumes generated beyond the control range of LEV is diluted in below OES range. [8] The most efficient way is to use fume extraction torches in combination with fume extraction system, because particles are extracted directly from source as shown in fig. 3, lead to give an effectiveness of up to 95%. [7] while air-fed breathing apparatus can also help greatly

as a form of RPE and it should follow OSHA 1910.132 “Respiratory Protection” standard.[8,12]

D) Aluminium fumes are explosive

Aluminium dusts or fines dispersed in the air can be explosive. Chips, fines, fumes and dust which are in contact with water can generate flammable/explosive hydrogen gas. These gases are sufficient to produce an explosion in poor ventilated spaces. Fines and dust, which are in contact with certain metal oxides such as rust can lead to generate a thermite reaction. That reaction can act as a weak ignition source and result in considerable heat generation. Moisture/water or rust entrapped by molten aluminium can be also explosive. [7,8]

Preventive Measure

Apart from preventive measures as mentioned above in section 2.1 (C), Employer can also take precautions as following.

1. Welding should be done with proper ventilation.
2. Moisture level should not be greater than 50% of humidity.
3. keep any water resource/storage at-least 35m away from the location of welding activity.
4. Avoid extreme temperatures and incompatible materials for welding [4]
5. Always welding items shall be stored in a cool low humid location and kept dry [4]

2.2. Ozone formation at the time of aluminium welding

Aluminium welding is mostly done with GMAW or GTAW to provide shielded atmosphere near weld. However, combination of GMAW or GTAW with aluminium leads to form harmful substance such as Ozone. Ozone is classified as carcinogenic substance according to TRGS 905, that required protective precautionary measures to reduce exposure of welders/welding operators during the welding of aluminium & its alloys. [1]

Formation of the Ozone is a result of the reaction between ultraviolet radiation and oxygen in the air. The UV rays are then reflected on the bare aluminium surfaces and can further form ozone even at somewhat distance from the weld. This reaction creates not only the particulate welding fumes themselves but also a highly dangerous Ozone. [1]

During GMAW of aluminium-silicon alloys, the ozone concentrations are slightly higher than those formed during welding of pure aluminium and significantly higher than formed during welding aluminium-magnesium material. [1] GMAW welding is mostly used for long seams and concentrations of ozone in the welder’s breathing zone will generally exceed the short-term OES by 3 times of allowable limit. As a contradictory, rising welding fumes hinder the formation of ozone by not allowing to reflect much UV rays. [7] So during GTAW welding, UV rays can easily spread out due to low fumes development which do not allow decomposition of ozone to oxygen, which lead to generate more ozone during GTAW process, particularly when welding of aluminium-silicon alloys. [1,8] SMAW welding of aluminium and its alloys is not common but if used for any sustained period, it will produce welding fume and ozone concentrations in the welder’s breathing zone in excess of their respective long-term OES. [8]

Ozone has both an 8-hour Total weight average (TWA) OES of 0.1 ppm and a 15-minute short- term exposure limit (STEL) of 0.2 ppm. these values are quoted assuming that no control measures (other than natural adventitious ventilation) are being used. [8]

Ozone formation only occurs during arcing and the concentration of the ozone in the air drops rapidly during arc extinction usually to below the STEL after 30 seconds. The STEL is likely to be exceeded at most welding operations unless there is an adequate control & proper precaution is taken. if welding is taking place in semi-confined or confined locations in most of the cases both long-term and short-term OESs for ozone will be exceeded as same as OES for welding fumes. [8]

A) Effect on health due to ozone formation during aluminium welding

Exposure to low levels of ozone can cause irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Inhalation of ozone can cause chest tightness, headache, shortness of breath, cough, wheeze, nausea and narrowing of airways. These symptoms disappear shortly when person removed from the exposure area. [5]

Exposure to high levels of ozone may cause acute respiratory distress with shortness of breath, pulmonary changes and pulmonary oedema (feeling like fluid in the lungs). Symptoms of pulmonary oedema may be delayed for one or more hours. Exposure of ozone to animal & human tissue to the high concentration has shown chromosomal changes, reproductive effects, blood changes and death from lung congestion. [5]

B) Preventive measure

Apart from preventive measures as mentioned above in section 2.1 (C), Employer can also take precautions as following.

1. Use of GMAW process
2. Use of proper PPEs & adequate ventilation required to avoid exposure of ozone.
3. Avoid work in confined space.

2.3. Eye injury during aluminium welding

A) Arc-eye

Eye injuries account for one fourth of all welding injuries, making them the most common injury for welders, with more than 50% of injured workers (eye related) joining to the work in less than two days and 95% in less than seven days. But some injuries are rare but permanent such as ‘arc eye’ or ‘arc flash.’ [21] which is also known as ‘ultraviolet keratitis’ and ‘snow blindness’. [22]

Eye injury can initiate from two main reason during welding of aluminium. [21]

1. Radiation and photochemical burns from ultraviolet radiation (UVR), infrared radiation,
and intense blue light.
2. Fumes and chemicals leads to give irritation and chemical burns.

UV-radiation is divided into three ranges: UV-A (315 to 400 nm), UV-B (280to 315 nm) and UV-C (100 to 280 nm). UV-C and almost all UV-B are absorbed in the cornea of the eye. UV- A passes through cornea and it is absorbed in the lens of the eye, but some UV radiation, visible light, and IR radiation can reach the retina and lead to generate ‘arc flash’. [23] During welding of aluminium ‘arc flash’ is more common because UV reflection from shiny, unpainted and polished surface is more. Due to less fumes and more radiation arc injury is more severe with GTAW than with GMAW.

B) Effect on eye health due to aluminium welding exposure.

Arc eye is generated due to the penetration of ultra-violate and visible spectrum (bright light) radiation through to the retina and characterized by eye swelling, tearing and pain. [21] Other symptoms of arc eye includes red and watery eyes, swollen and red eyelids, facial redness and impaired vision. Arc eye symptoms can appear in as little as exposure or take up to 12 hours to show up. [22]

Beyond the immediate effect of radiation, welding also impact on eyes over long run. In one study on welders it is found that yellow spots were present on the white part of the eye in 57 percent of the welders and degeneration of the thin membrane over the eyeball in 24 percent welders. Study also found corneal scarring in about half of the welders subjected to the study. [21] Long-term exposure to UV light can also produce cataracts in some persons. [23] Starring at the bright blue colour of the arc for longer duration can cause photo chemical changes in the retina, creating permanent loss of vision if proper protective filters are not used. [12]

C) Preventive measure

The best way to control eye injuries is to proper selection and use of eye protection. Welders should wear goggles or safety glasses with side shields that comply with OSHA 1910.252, under welding helmets because Helmets alone do not give enough protection. Even goggles provide better protection than safety glasses from impact, dust, and radiation hazards. [21]

The welder should be enclosed in an individual booth having adequate ventilation and painted with a finish of low reflectivity material such as zinc oxide (an important factor for absorbing ultraviolet radiations) and lamp black or shall be enclosed with non-combustible screens similarly painted that can protect workers from UV rays in the vicinity of 50 Feet [17,21]. It is advisable to have screens mounted approximately 2 feet (0.61 m) above the floor unless the work is performed at so low a level, that the screen must be extended nearer to the floor to protect nearby workers from the glare of welding. Others in the area should also wear eye protection, especially to avoid exposure of UV light. [21]

3. Other Challenges related to aluminium welding

Appearance of aluminium does not change when it’s heated. So, it’s much more difficult to separate cold metal from hot during aluminium welding. To further complicates the matters, aluminium has roughly five times the thermal conductivity of steel and approximately twice coefficient of thermal expansion, so welder is not able to detect expansion/contraction easily. As a result, it’s recommended that you label recently completed weldments as “hot” and wear leather gloves to reduce the risk of injury. [10]Medical treatment such as Irrigate eye with sterile water, padded dressing, cool packs, dilating drops and antibiotics should be given to the Injured person from ‘arc eye’ [9, 24] Unfortunately, workers don’t always wear safety glasses because of low perception of risk, poorly maintained lenses, discomfort, having to wear prescription lenses underneath, and vanity. [21]

4. Other general welding hazard that needs to be closely monitored

4.1 Electric shock during welding

All arc welders, who are using hand-held equipment are at the risk of electric shock and electrical burns. The risk for MIG/MAG and TIG welding is much less, as the lower welding

current is normally switched on and off using the trigger of the torch. [2] but Possibility of shock with Aluminium weldments are more than steel weldments, because a high-current arc starting option is initially employed and that option must remain active for the entire duration of the weld; additionally, higher electrical conductivity increases the risk of electrical shock. [10]

Unintentional touch of open wire circuit, faulty welding machine may surprise you and cause you to fall or slip. [2] Even low currents may cause severe health effects. Spasms, burns, muscle paralysis, or death can be a result of welding currents depending on the amount of the current flowing through the body, the route it takes, and the duration of exposure as shown in Table 3. [2]

Safety measures to avoid electric shocks & burns

All power supplies of welding must meet the guidelines of ‘electrical safety’ and ‘national electrical code 2011’ (BIS). [2] The installation of arc welding equipment should be done in accordance with the requirements of the OSHA standard, OAR 437, Division 2, Subdivision S: Electrical. [12] Employees should be properly trained to observe safe electrical work practices according to OSHA’s Electrical Hazard Training Standard 1910.332. [12] installation or fixing of welding equipment should be carried out by a suitably qualified person and is connected as recommended by the welding equipment manufacturer. [3]

Welder should void to work on wet surface and use an insulating mat, rubber soled shoes or some other dry platform on proper grounding, so they are not in direct contact with wet or conductive surfaces. [2,3] The insulation on the welding and current return leads, plugs, clamps or torch/electrode holder on welding equipment should be undamaged and the conductor is thick enough to carry the current safely. [3]

4.2 Welding in confined space

The main risk from confined space welding is the lack of oxygen. Shielding gases and some common chemical reactions (such as from rusting) can reduce the amount of oxygen inside enclosed spaces such as tanks, ships, pits and vessels, so working in these locations is dangerous. During confined space welding, direct use oxygen supplies to ‘sweeten’ the air is not advisable, so it is necessary to adopt a safe system of work to avoid any undesirable events. [3]

Welding gases such as argon and helium can displace the air inside enclosed spaces. Sometimes inert gases are used to deliberately replace the air to prevent weld oxidation or reduce the risk

of fires. Gases may also build up as they are used during the welding process. So if you don’t follow the safe system of work and enter an area where there is a large amount of inert gas are present with lack of oxygen then you are risking to the death from asphyxiation. If the amount of inert gas is high enough, you won’t cough, splutter, pant and even feel breathless. [3] If you aren’t rescued and allowed to breathing normal air within a few minutes, you are likely to pass out and eventually die. [3]

In spite of using oxygen in large amount in confined space, localized supply of oxygen to the welders is more preferable to avoid any chemical reaction, oxidation and fire hazard. Before working in confined space workers and employers should have good knowledge of OSHA code on confined spaces, OAR 437 Division 2 Subdivision J: 1910.146. [12] Welders should have trained and have exposure of the OSHA regulation 1910.251 for Welding, Cutting and Brazing, which specifies the ventilation, safety, and respiratory protection requirements for welding operations in confined spaces. [12]

So, place of welding should not be fully opened, where wind can affect welding quality and welder not able to confine the heat, sparks, and slag to protect the immovable fire hazards. Even it should not be confined much as it leads to suffocation to the welders due to welding fumes. so it is necessary to provide adequate fire safe space & fare ventilated area for welding. To avoid fumes exposure in confined space, ventilation requirement is given in table 2.

Body and skin protection can be done with suitable clothes for welding such as non-light reflective fireproof overalls and leather apron on full sleeve shirts and full length cuff-less pants. [9] Avoid using dirty, greasy or oily clothing, as they could ignite during welding. Use protective leather shoes that block radiations, sparks and electric shocks. [5] Use proper heat & shock protective welding gloves and suitable head protection. [9]

Hearing protection is recommended when personal time weighted average (TWA) noise exposures exceed 85 decibels for an 8-hour day or when noise levels exceed the maximum level of 115 decibels at any time. Hearing protection can be either ear plugs or earmuffs that have a good noise reduction rating in compliance with OSHA 1910.95 “Occupational Noise Exposure” standard. [12,17]

2.4.Employer Responsibility

Many welders don’t pay much attention to the Occupational Health and safety guidelines given by regulated body or government. It is because of large number of regulations from various authority and less knowledge of welders due to lesser literacy rate. This makes difficult to understand and determine for welders, which welding safety requirements are the welder’s responsibility. So, it will be the sole responsibility of employer to instruct welders about requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) and needs of using the safety gear that management provides. [15]

Organization can take support of OSHA’s requirement given in the ‘1910 Subpart I’ in ‘1910.132, 1910.133, 1910.134 appendices A through D, and 1910.135, and 1910.138’. These sections cover general requirements, eye and face protection, breathing protection, and head, foot, and hand protection, respectively. [15] There should be well defined safety guidelines having organogramic responsibility of personals are mentioned to maintain safety of welders and other workers.

Any relevant information about safe use of welding equipment & accessories and safe work activities must be communicated to the welders and training must be provided where necessary, which includes information on the risk assessments and control measures needs to be used in workplace. It is also advisable to carry out the pre-welding checks from organization, such as to ensure that the welding and current return cables are undamaged, all connectors are clean, undamaged and correctly rated for the required current to carry the current safely. workers should be effectively trained with visuals, personal safety trainings & safety sessions to get information about preventive measure of major welding hazards. Hazard warning information should be a part of education and training effort to communicate all health and safety hazard of aluminium to potentially exposed worker. [6] Regular health surveillance should be done for every employee, who have continued exposure of welding fumes in order to ensure any ill health effects can detect in early stage.

5. References

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19. Vijay Alexander, Kulandaipalayam Natarajan C Sindhu, Pradeep Zechariah, Abigail Veravolu Resu, Suryanarayan Rajendran Nair, Deepthi Kattula, Venkata Raghava Mohan & Reginald George Alex T (2016), “Occupational safety measures and morbidity among welders in Vellore, Southern India”, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, DOI:10.1080/10773525.2016.1228287

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22. All about vision, “Arc eye: Causes, symptoms, treatment and how you can protect your eyes” accessed on 12 January 2022, https://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/cornea/arc-eye- welding/#:~:text=have%20arc%20eye%3F- ,What%20is%20arc%20eye%3F,how%20the%20eyes%20are%20exposed.

23. Canadian Centre for occupational health & safety “Welding – Radiation and the Effects on Eyes and Skin”, Accessed on 12 January 2022, https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/safety_haz/welding/eyes.html#:~:text=Welding%20arc s%20and%20flames%20emit,surfaces%2C%20walls%2C%20and%20ceilings.

24. Better health channel, “Eyes – flash burns” Accessed on https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/safety_haz/welding/eyes.html#:~:text=Welding%20arc s%20and%20flames%20emit,surfaces%2C%20walls%2C%20and%20ceilings.13 January 2022, https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/eyes-flash-burns