Training and Certification in Welding


K. Suresh Kumar, Welding Engineer , Sumeka Welding Institute
Welding is one of the most common method of joining metal parts. Heat is applied to the pieces to be joined, melting and fusing them to form a permanent bond. Welding is a precise, reliable, cost-effective and high-tech method for joining materials. No other technique is as widely used by manufacturers to join metals and alloys efficiently and to add value to their products.
Welding is a regular process in any engineering industry. Many people think that welding is just putting two pieces of metal together, but there is a lot more analysis put into welding engineering. It requires high amount of skill, patience and commitment to accomplish a good weldment. (Fig-1)

Welding Applications
Welding is a very diverse trade; there are more than 80 processes with all kinds of conditions, from working in an air-conditioned shop to working in the air or even on the ocean floor.
Welding fabrication has grown rapidly because of its speed and economy. The major industrial groups that represent the welding industry use welding extensively but in different ways under different working conditions on different metals and according to different codes and specifications.
Welding has made a significant impact on quite a large number of major industries, by raising the operational efficiency, productivity and service life of the plant and equipment involved. A few of them which are highly relevant to India are listed below: (Fig-2)

(Fig-2- Oil Refineries)

  • Structural
  • Field-erected vertical storage tanks
  • Pressure vessels
  • Piping and pipelines
  • Power generating plant
  • Chemical plant
  • Ships
  • Railways
  • Automotive
  • Machinery construction
  • Oil refineries       Welding touches nearly every aspect of our lives. We don’t leave our homes without using some sort of transportation. Welding is very important to our economy.Importance of welding
    Welding is both an art and a technology requiring the skillful manipulation of the weld pool and a thorough knowledge of welding processes and the characteristics of the type of material being used. The reliability and safety of many products depends on the integrity of welding and joining.
    We can assume that in the 21st century continued widespread use of welding technology and ever – increasing global competition will create new challenges for employers and welding professionals.So welding professionals will need to be better educated to fill new job categories and be more flexible so they can respond to the changing knowledge and skill requirements of existing jobs.Welding professionals include welders, supervisors, educators, inspectors and engineers.
    Workers who do the actual welding have usually learned their skills on the job, only occasionally through apprenticeships or formal welder training. Others employed in the industrial field have been educated in a variety of disciplines, but rarely in welding.For our industry to grow and prosper, individuals capable of becoming trained and qualified are needed for all job categories.
    Welding Career
    Among job candidates, there is a negative perception of welding trade. This is especially true of welding field, which have long struggled with an unpleasant and dangerous working conditions.
    Due to the misguided view many people hold towards any type of manual or skilled worker, parents and others who guide individuals toward a career choice are directing young people away from the welding, technical and construction fields and directing them toward white collar professions, many of which do not pay as much or offer the same employment opportunities.
    In truth, there are tremendous opportunities within manufacturing and present jobs in this sector are more demanding than ever of modern and developing skill sets.Each type and level of welding application has increased earnings potential for those who advance through various levels of supervision and management.
    Being successful in the welding fields requires only three things:
  • Willingness to learn new techniques
  • A good work ethic
  • To not be afraid of hardwork and getting dirty.
  • A career in welding technology might be a great fit for you. Job opportunities are wide ranging. Some of the possibilities include working in fabrication shops, maintenance shops, steel erection operations, ship building yards or oil fields.You could even open your own shop and be your own boss.India has opportunities waiting for welding professionals like you all over the region in a variety of industries.The welding industry is a place where higher pay is possible.
    The success of a project involving welding as a critical component is highly dependent on the skill and talents of the personnel involved and relies on a team (welding professionals) effort. They have to know the basics and understand welding safety, interpretation of drawing and procedures.
    The training of welders and welding technologists will be more comprehensive and scientific. The welding industry is very much aware of the need to improve trainee skills.
    Training defined as “the act, process or method to impart knowledge or experience to acquire or to teach as to make fit, qualified or proficient. This teaching type refers to a particular set of skills. Well-educated welding engineers and scientists need well-trained technicians and operators to do their jobs.
    Welding is creative, challenging and interesting. Nevertheless, the need for practical education persists.
    The most important part of the welding system is the welder. Welders are people who must have skill and ability to manipulate equipment to produce welding.(Fig-3)

Welding is unique in the intense level of eye / hand coordination required. To be able put on a helmet, block out the rest of the world and concentrate on creating uniform ripples in molten metal where any variation or loss of concentration is evident for the discontinuities.
The welder maintains the arc, feeds the filler metal and provides travel and joint guidance. This requires a high degree of manipulative skill. Welders work under a variety of conditions: outdoors, indoors in open areas, in confined spaces, high above the ground and underwater. They use a large number of welding and cutting processes.
In addition to the manipulative procedures, a welder should acquire as much technical and theoretical information related to welding as possible. This knowledge is most helpful in learning the craft of pipe welding and in progressing upward on the job.
A skilled, certified welder with additional training, education and experience can lead to supervisory positions such as welding inspectors, instructors. A steady hand and attention to detail could land you a great career in an industry that’s heating up the job market.
Welder Shortage
Trade professions like welders and carpenters are seeing a shortage all over the country. The power plants that produce electricity, automobiles are welded together. Everybody wants their child to be very successful, not knowing that you can be very successful in the welding trades.
For the past ten years, an increasing number of high school students have diverting industrial training institutes (ITI) in order to get a three-year diploma. For fabrication like welding, that means fewer qualified employees. The welding industry is facing a problem. It’s quickly losing its older workforce and we haven’t had an influx of enough students to make up for that. Welding is learned through hands-on training and practice. That being said, there are no DVD’s, videos, simulators, books or websites that can teach you how to weld without real life practice. It’s just like driving a car!
Welding is a very highly skilled trade and takes 1000’s of hours to learn. Anyone who can master and perfect this skill can easily make a doctor’s salary or more! Welders are among the high paying jobs that do not require a degree. Personally, there are plenty of work opportunities here in India and abroad.
Welder training
Teaching welding class with about five to ten students in each class. The benefit of having small classes is that instructor can spend more one-on-one time with each individual student.
It would appear that in most training facilities that offer the basic shielded metal arc welding training, the end result is that the trainee pass a particular weld assessment for entry level welders.
A good example would be a course of 250 hours would result in successful qualification with 15 mm plate in 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G positions with the E 7018. How one gets to that point is generally the direction of the instructor, who following a set curriculum of objectives, guides the student to successful qualification. This training will hopefully become the foundation to a successful career allowing the individual to progress with a variety of processes.
Welding Instructor
Welding instructor generally should have coupons that they personally weld up with their welds staggered to show layering and proper build up as well as different techniques to achieve the desired results. They should have pipe that was welded in 6G that they did one side with stringers and one side with a weave, same for plate groove welds.
The students like that, and gives them something to look at and compare. Keep in mind that we do not only teach practical based welding classes but also fabrication, drawing reading, tools, safety, theory and much more. We have to be able to communicate effectively in all areas.

  1. It is important that a welding instructor be able to actually weld the welding the process they are teaching, that they can do effective demonstrations of the right and wrong ways to do a weld.

There are a host instructors out there who have golden arms and can make high level welds, but do not have the ability to communicate their riches in talent to the student learners.
There are less skilled instructors that have better measured results because they are well trained or gifted as teachers.
2. It is important that an instructor spend time in the welding booth watching students weld, so they can critique and correct important techniques. (Fig-4)

  •  (Fig-4 Welding Instruction)
    Students need daily reinforcement of the safety and the hazards they are working with and how to use the tools they are being introduced to.
  • An instructor should have some experience in more than one environment. The basic environments where welder / instructor can work: fabrication shop and field work in the manufacturing of pressure parts, structural, piping, pipelines and maintenance.
  • One of the most important elements of instruction, is modeling professional work place behavior. This is not just limited to the hard skills, such as producing acceptable welds and setting up and maintaining related equipment, but the soft skills of safe conduct, respect for fellow employees, attentiveness to responsibilities, engagement.
  • It is ideal than an instructor be able to weld, to be proficient in the areas he are teaching and to be fully engaged with their students for safety and instructional purposes. Most pipe welders can make a stop then restart with no problem, but these locations are sites for possible defects. At each of these locations, there is an increased risk for slag inclusions and other quality defects that might have to be repaired at a later date. If we don’t teach that to the youth, they won’t know any better.
    “Stay focused on your work. Once the helmet comes down, let go of all of your problems and just focus on welding”.
    Skilled welders aren’t easy to find. Completing the training program in weeks instead of months is not achieved by cutting corners in safety and quality.
    The Fifteen Essentials
    There is no better career path for yougsters than ‘welding’. Teaching welding theory is necessary and important, but job-ready welding skills are learned in the workshop, not in the classroom. Following are 15 important things to train beginner welder, to help them improve their skills and stay safe in the process. (Fig-5)

  •  (Fig-5 Weld Beads)
    1. Make safety a first priority
    2. Know the material properties
    3. Understand the importance of filler metals
    4. Handle consumables properly
    5. Selection of correct electrode diameter
    6. Welding current
    7. Welding arc length and its effect
    8. Travel speed
    9. Electrode angles
    10. Cleanliness is critical
    11. Follow welding procedures
    12. Stay comfortable
    13. Visual inspection of welds
    14. Learn how to troubleshoot
    15. Maintenance makes a difference
  • Welder Qualification Program Welder training and qualification tests are given to ensure that each welder has adequate skill and is able to produce sound welds. Welders are, therefore, constantly being tested for their qualification.
    Each manufacturer shall qualify each welder for each welding process to be used in production welding. The welder qualification test shall be welded in accordance with qualified welding procedure specification (WPS).

    1. Test coupon fit-up met with the WPS requirements.
    2. Test coupon position was maintained from start to finish
    3. The root pass visual inspection and found acceptable
    4. Fill passes monitoring

    The final (cover) pass visual inspection met with the acceptance criteria without requiring repair to do so.(Fig-6)

(Fig-6 Cover Pass)
Have strict time limits on welding tests.

  1. The test coupons may be examined by radiography or by bend tests and found acceptable meeting the acceptance criteria. (Fig-7)

(Fig-7 Radiographic Images)
The bend specimens were removed from the correct location and same test coupon. Weld reinforcement and backing, if any, may be removed flush with the surface of the specimen. The specimens were bent in the test jig (180o). (Fig-8)

(Fig-8 Bend Test)

  1. If all test results are satisfactory, the welder is deemed qualified to perform welding within the limits of that qualification.
  2. The results of the tests, as well as a description of the welding procedure used, are listed on a report form to certify that the welder has satisfied the qualification requirements.

Certification, however applies to document which support this qualification.

  1. Each qualified welder shall be assigned an identifying number by the manufacturer
  2. Monitor production welding

Welder Certification
In the welding field the certification is the signed document that attests to the fact the welder has successfully passed a qualification test to a specific code. It implies that a testing organization, manufacturer, contractor has witnessed the preparation of test welds, has conducted the prescribed testing of the welds and has recorded the successful results of a test in accordance with prescribed accepted standards.
Welders cannot be qualified or certified on their own. Normally manufacturers, contractors certify that a welder is qualified on successful completion of specific test welds. This means that recertification or qualification is normally required when welders change employers.
Certification adds value to a person’s marketability in the work place. Further these certifications allow you to prove you are qualified without the need for further training. Certification is not an assurance of future competence or ability. What the customer needs is not a certificate to be shown to him but provision of an improved product and service which is by itself the best certificate that any organization can get.
Safety should always come first on the job site and investment in preventative measures is vital in eliminating accidents and maintaining job site efficiency. Work place safety starts from the footwear. The welding work may require heavy personal protective equipment for working with molten metal and suitable clothing for working outdoors.
To start a positive safety culture, people must learn how to “see” safety problems and know what it takes to resolve them without hindering overall productivity.

  • Provide appropriate personnel protection
  • Comply with appropriate standards and regulations.
  • Communicating with senior management

An accident also has indirect costs, such as plant floor interruptions, time that it takes supervisors to manage a safety situation and the time it takes to do an accident report. Combine ergonomics with safety to increase productivity. Good safety is good business. Good safety practices should build the foundation of a modern manufacturer’s culture.

(Fig-9 Welder PPE)
Training Organizations in India and Abroad
Industrial Training Institute – ITI
In the Government of India, the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is an apex organization for the development and coordination for the vocational training in our country. The Ministry conducts the vocational training programmes through the Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS), Apprenticeship Training Scheme (ATS), Modular Employable Skills (MES) and Craftsmen Instructor Training Scheme (CITS) to cater the needs of different segments of the labour market.
The National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) acts as a central agency to advise Govt of India in framing the training policy and coordinating vocational training throughout India. Welder trade under CTS is one of the most popular courses running on pan India through Government and Private Industrial Training Institute (ITI). The day-to-day administration of the ITI is rests with the State Governments/Union Territories.
The course is of one year (02 semesters) duration. It mainly consists of trade (skills and knowledge) and core area (workshop calculation and science, engineering drawing and employability skills).After passing out of the training programme, the trainee is awarded National Trade Certificate (NTC) by NCVT which is recognized worldwide.
Advanced Training Institute – ATI
Advanced Training Institutes are running in our country for the last 50 years and conducting Craft Instructor Training Scheme (CITS). There are 14 institutes imparting training in 34 trades (including welder) of long term and more than 100 nos short-term courses were skillfully designed for students passing out from ITI, Polytechnic, Engineering colleges etc..,
Foremen Training Institute – FTI
Two years Technical Diploma in Welding Technology course is proposed to be introduced in the FTI, Bengaluru.
Welding Research Institute – WRI
The WRI was established in the year 1975 under the joint auspieces of the Government of India and Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd as an adjunct to the complex of BHEL, Tiruchirappalli.
WRI offers training in welding and allied areas through in – house short term certified programmes for engineers and supervisors.
Training and certification of welders in all arc welding processes as per applicable codes such as IBR, AWS, BS, ISO, API, etc.
The Indian Institute of Welding – IIW India
The IIW is a professional body devoted to the promotion and advancement of welding science and technology in India. Established in 1966, with its head quarters in Kolkata, operates through 13 branches spread across the country.
IIW organizing workshops, seminars, refresher courses, training programmes, conferences and exhibitions across India. A division of IIW India has been accredited by International Institute of Welding (IIW) as its only Authorized National Body in India to operates its above international scheme and award International Diplomas to welding personnel at various levels from skilled welder to the highest level of professionals.
Indian Welding Society – IWS
The IWS, a leading professional body dedicated to the cause of welding in India, was formed by welding professionals from the fabrication industries, welding equipment and consumable manufacturers, educational and research institutes, etc. with the idea of providing a forum for propagating the developments in welding technology.
With its head quarters at New Delhi, the society has a federal structure consisting of different regional centres in the north, east, west, south and central zones of India.
Since its inception in 2002, it has been organizing courses on welding and allied areas, national/international wokshops /seminars, symposium, evening lecture programmes, training programmes, throughout the year.
 American Welding Society – AWS
One of the best ways to advance your welding career is by earning a specialized certification. This opens up opportunities for more money, leadership roles and higher level career challenges. AWS is the source for qualification and certification of welding personnel.
AWS offers nine different certification categories from inspectors, supervisors and educators to radiographic interpreters, welding engineers and fabricators.
For those who are interested in the inspection side of welding and the certification of welding personnel, there are the AWS certification programs, featuring the AWS certified welding inspector, the AWS certified welder and the AWS accredited test facility. AWS is doing a great job in educating and training others around the world.
The Welding Institute – TWI
The certification scheme for welding inspection personnel (CSWIP) is a comprehensive scheme which provides for the examination and certification of individuals seeking to demonstrate their knowledge and/or competence in their field of operation. The scope of CSWIP includes among others, welding inspectors, welding supervisors, welding instructors, etc., CSWIP is administered by The Welding Institute (TWI), United Kingdom.

  1. Introduction

Welding plays a key role in every manufacturing process in a wide range of industries. To sustain in the global competition, industries are looking for enhancing the quality of their product. One of the ways of enhancing quality is by improving the practical and theoretical skill of welding professionals. The situation today is a lack of quality manpower.
Sumeka Welding Institute which was established in 2007 is imparting education in the field of welding technology and this institute is an industry oriented training and becoming a leader in welding technology and expertise. (Fig – 10)
SWI is located at Perambalur, 55 kms away from ‘Temple of Welding’ Trichy, India.

(Fig – 10 Welder Training

  1. Aim

Education and training increase the knowledge base of all people employed in the welding industry, at every level, enabling them to make decisions that will result in utilization of the best welding technology for each application.
To attract more people to the field of welding in the workplace and in academia
To train more specialists in fields related to welding
A work force that is appropriately educated at all levels will drive a technological revolution in welding for our country. The prestige and promise of welding as a career will grow as welders are certified to gurantee their capabilities and engineers gain greater appreciation of the potential use of welding.

  1. About the course

We read many books, but that does not bring us knowledge. Theoretical knowledge is easy enough to get, any one may get that. What we want is practical. Our idea is practical works.
There is no knowledge without experience. You can get the welding knowledge here by practical experience.
When man has come face to face with the one great fact in the universe, then alone with doubts vanishes and crooked things become straight. This is true practice.

  • Our business is to educate the welding technology.
  • A career in welding offers numerous opportunities to advance in the industry.

The participants of our course, are an ambitions bunch and the SWI perfectly understand this and has an array of courses to prepare them for the real welding world. The course details are followed here for your information.

  1. Course timings

The session timing will be from 10.00 am to 5.00 pm.

  1. Evaluation

At the end of the training programme, the participants would have to undergo a written test in multiple choice questions to determine participants understanding of welding technology.

  1. Certification

Certification adds value to a person’s marketability in the work place.
Certificate and welder identity card will be issued on successful completion of training.
(Fig – 11)

  (Fig – 11 Welder ID Card)
“Welding is a building block for one’s future. Most welding professionals go on to expand their careers through continuous education and experience”.
We have a workshop, equipments, welding consumables, technical support details and faculty with more than 30 years of experiences in the weld fabrication industries worked in India and abroad.
One of the aspects of SWI’s program is the blend of hands-on with the theoretical learning.
The institute offers the following welding technology courses:

Sl.No Course Title Duration
1 Welding Technology for Fresh Engineers 6 Days
2 Welding Technology for Supervisors 6 Days
3 Welding Inspection Technology 6 Days
4 WPS/PQR/Welder Qualification 5 Days
5 Quality Assurance/Control 4 Days
6 ITI Welder-NCVT 1 Year
7 Evening course on Welding Technology 15 Days

SWI specializes in producing welding related services like:
Perform welding inspection of various products in accordance with industry codes, customer provided specifications or design drawings.
Develop written quality systems for organizations utilizing welding as a part of their manufacturing, construction or maintenance.

  • Provide vendor survey inspections in accordance with customer requirements.
  • Develop course outlines and supporting content for welding inspection and qa/qc topics.
  • Prepare written procedures supporting quality policies related to welding and fabrication.
  • Provide training on the AWS-CWI, TWI-CSWIP preparation.
  • Preparation and review of WPS/PQR/WQT documents.

How SWI is Skilling Young India
In India, approximately 50 percent of the workforce comprises of young professionals. It is critical that they are ready with required skills to manage themselves, their work and people at the workplace.
SWI aims to provide relevant content for those young professionals. The content is focused on welding technology required for faster career growth. SWI could help individuals become employable with articles from industry experts.
We want them to get familiar with what they will do on the job site. But it’s not just practical skills that SWI instructors help trainees with, they also try to instill the right attitude to have on the job. (Fig – 12)

(Fig – 12 SWI Training Shop)
“It’s not just a job, it’s a career”. Most training centres teach “how” to weld, but rarely teach “about” welding and metals. There is a big difference.
It is one thing to learn “how” to do something and another “what” to do with what you have learned. We teach ‘both’.
We should be willing to explain why we are proud to say ‘I got my career start by welding and this profession has provided me and my family a solid life for 34 years’.
Join the Sumeka Welding Institute. It not only trains, educates and employs you, but also gives you a lifestyle that’s enviable and honourable.
Don’t settle for anything less. Be different. Make a difference. SWI, calling for welding education, training. For detailed information, visit us at
Quality is needed at every step of the welding process. Welders are a critical part of the process. If we do not have welders of quality, no amount of research and development, specifications, procedures and management techniques will produce a quality product.
An effective welding professional should be able to make a right quality weld at the first time and every time so that we can reduce the cost of scrap, reworks and warranty. The quality will be there if the welders/supervisors are properly informed and trained.
Industries turning out the next generation of welding professionals and it is our duty to produce the best qualified workforce that our resources/institutions will allow.
SumekaWelding Institute wants to partner with many industries such as manufacturing, construction as well as with the trades, educational institutions, individuals and government entities. By working together, we can face the future with confidence that the infrastructure of welding society will be improved.

  1. AWS Welding Journals Dec 2000, Apr 2003, April, June 2013, Dec 2015, Nov 2017
  2. AWS Membership Network dated 24/08/2016 and 01/11/2016
  3. Weldwell Spectrum Apr – June 2013
  4. W.Cameron article ‘Become the Qualification Guru of Choice’ dated 21/09/2016
  5. AWS Inspection Trends – Jan 2012
  6. The Fabricator Nov – 2017