“I am enrolled and dedicated only to welding aspects.”

Prof. Américo Scotti,
Visiting Professor,
University West, Sweden,
A Welding Technology Consultant

You are highly recognised for your extensive contribution towards welding industry. Infact, you have been working with the welding technology since 1982. Great. Please introduce a more about you, your qualification?

First, thanks for your kind words. Very kind of you when you said that I am recognised in the field. But I accepted being blamed for being crazily passionate about welding, and I insist on working on the development and propagation of this technology. It may be the reason for some friends see my professional life as of some value to the welding industry. Let me briefly introduce myself. I am a senior professional in welding. 66 years old. I was born and raised in Brazil, where I graduated as Mechanical Engineer and obtained my MSc’s degree (when my life related to welding started about 45 years ago). Cranfield University, UK, awarded my PhD. My professional life has been mainly in Brazil, in the academic environment, lecturing and researching. However, I always have a foot into industry (as a consultant and for 2 years employed by Praxair in Brazil). I have not got tired yet. At the moment, I am a professor at Univesity West in Sweden and a visiting professor with my previous employer, the Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil.

You were a full time professor at the Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil. What were your focused subjects? Also can you brief us on the welding market scenario in Brazil? What is the status in Brazil on the availability of skilled welders?

My main focus has been arc welding processes. I work from the basics (arc physics) to the end-use (process automation and parametric optimisation). My research approach is experimental work, with the application of instrumentation and statistics. I have imposed a great effort lately on heat input measurement by calorimetry and fume and gas emission from arc welding processes. In addition, I have devoted study time to experimental mitigation and determination methods of distortion and residual stresses related to welding process application. The latest subject of interest has been Arc Welding Additive Manufacturing, on which subject I have been working for the last 6 years.

Brazil, as much as India, is a fascinating country also concerning industrial activities. And welding application is at a level comparable to most developed countries. Naturally, we have less automation applied, since our labour cost is lower. But this brings us to the bright side. We still have a lot of skilled welders. The welding personnel (engineers, supervisors, welders) are very proud of their profession. This aspect is easily perceived in the media groups that I am enrolled and dedicated only to welding aspects. I feel very confident when I hear testimonies.To some extent, I imagine having aided some of these professionals, as a lecturer or supervisor of undergraduate and graduate students or helped out welding engineers to obtain their qualifications. However, I recognise that I learned a lot from them, including from the skilled welders that I talk to. Unfortunately, the economic situation of Brazil is not at the best moment lately. This has a great negative impact on the welding market and the motivation of skilled welders.

You have also acted as a Research Coordinator of the Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes at the Federal University of Uberlandia for many years. Besides, you worked as a Senior Researcher at White Martins Gases Industriais (the Brazilian branch of Praxair) from 2000-2002. Please elaborate. Can you describe us on some of the mega developments during the tenure?

Mega development is again kind words from you to me. I could highlight that at this time that I helped my students and colleagues in the development of tandem GMAW and Plasma Arc welding processes, by studying from fundamentals to application in industry. My work team developed dedicated and more efficient shielding gases for these processes that are in the market. I assisted in creating gadgets for synergic control of P-GMAW and luminescence sensing for P-GMAW, an automation system for root pass in pipelines, which swaps process mode according to the arc groove position, and even a moldable backing to facilitate root pass building up. The project that I am very proud to have devised and implemented with the team, not long time ago, was a Near-Immersion Active Cooling for Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing (metal parts are printed partially inside water, to control cooling rate and avoid heat accumulation).

You are a Researcher 1A by CNPq (the Brazilian central agency for research development). Please discuss on few projects.

CNPq classifies the researchers using meritorious criteria based mainly on the scientific carrier, yet also counting technological production. The rank is reviewed every 5 years. Peers have understood that I should be ranked at the highest position (1A) in my area (manufacturing). One of the reasons for that is the numerous projects that I submitted to CNPq (and other Brazilian agencies) and industry, helping me provide research resources for my students, colleagues, and myself. Therefore, I recognise that this classification helps me to reach my objectives.

Currently, you are a Consultant on Welding Technology for various companies. Can you brief us on some of the interesting projects you working upon? You’re Consultation towards the project. Which is your ongoing or upcoming project?

Since I left Brazil to accept the kind invitation to work in a Swedish university 7 years ago, my contacts with industry have been through industry-academia cooperation projects. The two projects that I am serving as project leader right now, one in Sweden (with a partnership with Esab, BAE System, Trumpf, and Uddeholm) and one in Brazil (with a partnership with Linde) is about WAAM (Wire arc additive manufacturing). The main target is to overcome limitations for the industrial application of WAAM.

You also served as a member of the auditor’s body of ABS-ANB (National authorised body for qualification and certification of personnel in welding), an organ accredited by the IIW (International Institute of Welding). What are the key considerations to qualify in welding?

My experience on personal qualification in welding is limited to the IIW (International Institute of Welding) scheme. The main challenge as an auditor was to make vocational and academic institutions accredited as ATBs (approved training bodies) follow the rigid protocols demanded by IIW-IAB. The natural flexibility of the educational institutions leads to initial resistance to changes. But as long as they adapt to the system, the process runs smoothly.

Please elaborate on your role with the Brasilian national certification agency?

This was one of the most pleasurable tasks in my carrier. I cooperted with the creation and application of the IIW system in Brazil. As one of the Brazilian ANB (Authorized National Board) executive officers, I was responsible for the writing and implementation of the quality assurance documentation. I also served as auditor to ATBs, and for those not related, I also lectured welding processes, metallurgy and fabrication.

You have devoted study time to experimental mitigation and determination methods of distortion and residual stresses related to welding process application. Elaborate.

I used to see thermal stresses from the physical point of view as an approach, rather than numerical simulation. To understand the fundamentals for residual stresses and distortions. I dedicated time to develop descriptive models. I would highlight the 5-bar-model created by me, as an extension of the popular 3-bar-model widely used. The difference is that HAZ is included to successfully explainthe interface between cold metal and progressively heated material.

What has been your latest subject of research in welding?

The latest subject of interest has been Arc Welding Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). This is my passion now.

What are your future plans?

To retire? Fortunately or not, I cannot see myself actually retired. I plan to slow down, but keeping supervising some students and involved with the welding community (as serving some more years as Editor-in-Chief of the Welding in the Word journal). At least for as long as my students and colleagues have enough patience to put up with me. To be honest, I would like to know more and spend short periods as visiting professor in other universities around the globe. Exchange of ideas has been my driven force.

Closing note?

Foremost, I would like to thank you for the opportunity to have this amusing talk about welding with the readers of this journal. I hope that this would be reciprocal, from the readers’ side. I would like to also recognise the Indian Welding Institute for all consideration towards me in the last years. IIW has been very thoughtful, encouraging me to pursue tightening bonds with Indian people and institutions.